Account of the cause of the Conquest of Glamorgan by Sir Robert fitz Haymon and his Twelve Knights.

Coity Castle

IESTIN the son of Gurgant (fn. 2) was Lord or Prince of Glamorgan about the year of our Lord 1046. He had a son that had a many yeares before obtained the Kingdome of Southwales Whose name was Rytherch otherwise Roderick. This Rytherche had been killed in Battle and the Southwales Kingdom had reverted to its former right of possession. But about the year 1089 Iestyn and his sons made war on Rhys son of Theodor (fn. 3) Prince of Southwales, for the recovering of that Kingdom to his great-Greatgrand … who made claim of Southwales in the right of his Grandfather who had won it by conquest, and who did also claim under a right descent from the first Princes of Southwales who were the ancient possessors of the Rule and Power in the Time of Cadwalader King Sole of the Britains, holding under him; out of this ancestorial right they had been ousted by those that claimed sole monarchy in right of Cadwalader, and who had possessed north and south Wales for many ages. In this war Iestin was unlucky. And it Happened at this time that one Enion the Son of Calloyn (fn. 4) was at some variance with Prynce Rhys. Which caused him to take part with Iestin Lord of Glamorgan and his party, and with him came also one Cedrych son of Gwaethvoed Lord of Cardigan, and they both Joined their forces with Iestin. But thinking still that Rhys who was assisted from Northwales and Ireland, might be to hard for them, Enion did propose to Iestin to ask the aid of a Famous Knight and valiant Soldier whose Name was sir Robert fitz Haymon, Lord of Corboil in Normandy, a person in favour with King William Rufus and with whom he the said Enion was well acquainted, as he had been brought up with him in some part from Boyhood. To this Iestin agreed, and thereupon Enion made haste on his Message and went to the King’s Court at London and bargained with Sir Robert fitz aymon to assist him and Iestin. Sir Robert came and brought with him 12 Knights, 24 Squires and three thousand men. With this Einon ab Collwyn brought 1000 men, and Cedrych ap Gwaithfoed 2000, and to this Iestin could add only 300 men or a few more, for the Lords and Knights of his owne Country had refused him much aid. When these men were all Joined together they soon overcame Prince Rhys and his men, in a bloody fight on the Moor of Herwenorgan (fn. 5) and the neighbour hills, and Rhys was killed and his head Sawed off by an English soldier one of the men of Syr Roberts army. When the Battle was ended Iestin paid handsome rewards to Syr Robert and his men, fullfilling his Bargain and much more. So they went away in peace every one towards his own home. But he refused to compleat his promise with Einon and Cedrych, which was this: Einon was to have his Daughter Nest to wife and for her dowerment the mannour of Denys Pywys, (fn. 6) and Cedrych was to have the Lordship of St Tathan and 300 pound in Gold for his Aid. But all this he refused to perform, so Einon and Cedrych went after Sir Robert and his men and made a complaint. On this Sir Robert seeing their Cases hard, came back and reasoned with Iestin. But now he had won victories and abundance of wealth he was not to be reasoned with but gave churlish answers and hard words to Sir Robert and many hard ungentlemanlike words which angered Sir Robert, and this he reported to Einion and Cedrych who told him that the Country was rich and fat, very full of Corn and Cattle, and large houses and strong Castles which the Children of Iestin had built for themselves on Lands which they had cheated and taken by force from the right owners, and that Iestin was badly beloved and had no armies, and that it was a very easy thing to take the Country from him, especially if they would restore to the right owners one half of what Iestin and his sons and friends had taken by force of their Lands and possessions. Sir Robert and his men were pleased with this thing, and seeing the Land very Good and fat in all sorts of Corn and Grass and Cattle, resolved on the matter, and after sending once again to Iestin to advise [him] to fullfill his promise with his friends, which advice Iestin scorningly laughed at, Sir Robert and Einon and Cedrych Joined their Armies and beset the Castle of Cardiff and burnt and tore it to the Ground, and took to all the Lands and Rights and riches of Iestin and forced him to fly away. Now Sir Robert had so contrived the matter as to allow the Welsh soldiers of Cedrych and Einon the right they claimed of fighting foremost in battle, and so more than half of them were killed before the battle was over, and this gave Sir Robert and his followers to pick and Chuse for themselves in the parting of the Country between themselves. Of the Lands that were in possession of Iustins Sons and relations unlawfully Sir [Robert] took half, which he divided amongst his knights and squires, but to such of the sons of Iestin and others who had a true right-lawful possession he left them it, on condition that they should hold in fealty of him. After giving out this agreement with the Lords and franklens of the Country, they all came to him and took him for Lord, and it was in this manner that he divided the wealth.

1st THE kept himself all the Royalty and the Lands that were to support it, and the Towns and Castles which did appertain to it, which weere the Castle and Town of Cardiff, The Castle and Town of Kenffig, The Castle and Town of Cowbridge, and the Castle and Town of Lantwit and with it the Lords Mannor and Grange of Boverton he kept for Corn and provisions where he built a fine place of pleasure to dwell in at times, out of the old Court house of the Lords of Glamorgan that was there, and here he kept Netherds and shepherds and plow Men and Gardeners, to tend Cattle and till the Ground. He kept also the Lordships of Tir Iarll (fn. 7) and Glynrhondde, (fn. 8) which [he] parted between Welsh franklens to hold of him by knight-service and paying to him a free rent every year.

2d To Sir William De Londres he lotted the Castle and Mannor of Ogmore, with its Lands, and the Town of Corntown, with its Mannor and domain for his Granary and provisions, and here he raised so much Corn that he and his franklens held a large Market of Corn every week and it was for this that the place was so called Corntown. This Sir William gave his Butler, whose name was Arnold, the Castle and Mannor of Dunraven (fn. 9) with Lands for twenty franklens who were to attend him when he went out of the Lordship on solemn occasions, and he was from his calling when he was in the household of Sir William De Londres called Arnold Butler and after having his Lands and Chivalian rights made a knight and called Sir Arnold Butler.

3d To Sir Richard Greenvill (fn. 10) he gave the Castle and Town of Neath with its Lands and Mannor, and he had also the Mannor of Monks Nash for his Granary and provisions, where he planted fair orchards, and built many fair houses for the Welsh franklens, to whom he gave Lands of six marks a year, to keep his Court. This Sir Richard went a Pilgrim to the Holy Tomb in Jerusalem, and in his return home in the Island of Cyprus he had a dream and it seemed to him that a grave old man stood by him and said that he had done wrong in taking the Land in Wales from the Welshmen and that if he did not do them Justice his pilgrimage would be of no good to him. He then returned to Jerusalem and did swear on the holy Tomb that if he lived to return to his home, he would do right to all who could prove a rightful claim, and other of the Land unclaimed he gave to God and his Saints for ever. He did bring with him a famous Sarasin that was turned Christian and baptized whose name was Lales, and he was a curious man in masonry, for which reason Sir Richard gave him Lands for building the Abbey of Neath, and other Churches and holy places. And this Lales also built the New Church of Landaff, for lestin in his fury had burnt down the old Church. This Lales was afterward employed by the Lords to build their Castles in a better way than they were by the Welsh Lords, and had Lands given him by Langewydd where he built a fine Town which he called Lalestown (fn. 11) and removed the Church from Langewydd to that place. After that he became famous for fair buildings in the Towns and Castles and villages of Glamorgan, and he was sent for by King William Rufus to be his chief builder, after he had with much good will brought up many masons as good as himself. After this Sir Richard died in his Abbey of Neath, and the Rights of high Lordship fell to his Brother, who gave the same to God and the Saints forever and went to Bideford in Denshire (fn. 12) where his posterity remain to this day. After this gift the Abbot of Neath became one of the twelve high Lords of Glamorgan and continued to be so for long ages, till within our memory. (fn. 13)

4th To Sir Pain Turberville he gave the Castle and Mannor of Coity, with the Mannors of New Castle and Court Coleman for his Granary and provisions. He built the New Castle of Coyty and with it a fair Church and village, and the old Castle he kept for a place of store and provisions which he sold to all that wanted, and for this he and his heirs kept high market once a week till the Castle was demolished by Sir Richard Beauchamp. After that open market was kept in the high way near by, and it so remains to this day. This Pain Turberville married Sara Daughter of Myrig (fn. 14) the Son of Iestyn Lord of Coyty, and so obtained a right of inheritance in the place, and for this Reason he would never hold of the Chief Lord of Glamorgan nor render him fee and tribute. Which caused quarrelling, but Pain assembled the Welsh together, who loved him more than all the other Lords and took his part. And so they beset Cardiff Castle and broke into it, and Sir Robert was struck by him on the head with his fist till he was taken for dead, and he never had his right senses afterward and it did cause madness at Last of which he died. Upon this it was agreed between Sir Robert with other Lords and Pain, that he should hold his Castles and Mannors of Coyty and New Castle and Court Coleman of himself, and pay no tribute to the Chief Lord of Glamorgan, but that he should sit in Court as the Substantiate of the Welsh Franklens and Lord of Coyty, with one right of speech for himself and another for the Country. And so it was with his heirs and Remained till the time of Sir John Beauchamp when they Lost the Royalty sole and were subdued to hold of the Chief Lord. For these Reasons, that is of his courage and resoluteness, was Pain Turberville called Pain the Devil. (fn. 15)

5th To Sir Robert St Quintin he gave the Castle and Lordship of Llanblethian all but the Town of Cowbridge and its Castle, and with Llanblethian Lordship he gave him the Grange and Mannor of Canlinstion for his Granary and provisions. This Sir Robert new builded the Castle of Lanblethian three times, and at the last time made it but Little to what it had been before of him, saying it was men with strong hearts he wanted for he had found Castles with strong walls of no Service against the Welsh, for he had builded the Castle very large and strongly walled two times, and it was beaten to pieces by the Welsh of the mountains. This Sir Robert was the worst beloved of any Norman Lords by the Welsh, for he gave them no Lands in frank pledge as others did, but his Son after him bestowed much Land in freehold and so became strong in the Country, and well beloved.

6th To Sir Richard Syward he gave the Castle and Mannor of Talyfann with Rights Royal in fee, and the Mannor of Merthyr mawr for his Granary and provisions. This Sir Richard brought vines and Vinedressers from france and made fair vinyards at Merthyr Mawr, where he made much wine and from there Sir Robert fitzhamon took trees and men to plant them and went to his Estates in Glocestershire at Thucksbery, (fn. 16) out of the way of the Welsh, and it was there he died of madness.

7th To Sir Gilbert Humphreville he gave the Castle and mannor of Penmark with the Mannor of Coomb Cidi for his Granary and provision. This Sir Gilbert built a fair Church and village by his Castle, and settled peace in the Country about. But he and his heirs lived more in a house (fn. 17) of theirs in Cardiff Castle than they did at Penmark which was more of a strong hold than of a homestead.

8th To Sir Roger Bercrolls he gave the Castle and Mannor of St Athan, and the Mannor of Lanffe for his Granary and provisions. This Sir Roger planted two fair orchards of all sorts of Apples and fruits with Castles to defend them, which places were called East Orchard and West Orchard, the great Castle of Saint Athan and the Castle of West orchard were destroyed by Ifor Petit, (fn. 18) but East orchard still remains and was the homsted of the family till it fell for want of heirs male to the family of Stradling. It was Sir Roger Bercrolls that made such fair Orchards and Gardens on all his Lands, that King Harry the first being invited to see them said that he feared that some Devil of A Welsh Lord would tempt his men to eat of them, and so great was the fame of these Orchards and the Orchards of the Grange house at Boverton that the Country came to be called the Garden of Wales, and it was from those Orchards that fruit was carried to the King’s house, and trees from them was planted at his palaces in London. And so they were planted every where thro the Kingdom and it was this Sir Roger that first of the Norman Lords hedged about having men from flanders to do the work, which men were afterwards with Sir Robert Fitzhamon at Boverton and Theuckesbury to hedge his lands, and make his orchards, and these men were all Rewarded with Lands in frankliege fee, (fn. 19) by six Marks in the year, and so became Gentlemen whereof were the Nerbers at St Athan in high esteem, for they had a right of chief evidence in cases of dispute about Woods and hedges and Orchards.

9th To Reginald Sully he gave the Castle and Town of Sully with the Mannour of it, and the Mannours of St Andrews and Dinas Pywys for his Granary and provisions. This Sir Reginald bestowed much Land in fee frankliege to his Men and came to be a man of wealth and fame. He had at Sully besides his Castle a fair Mannor house built after a new manner, where he did live the most of his time, which house as well as the Castle was broke down by Owain Glendowr. (fn. 20)

10th To Sir Peter le Soare he gave The Castle and Town and Mannour of Peterston Super Ely, (fn. 21) with the Mannour of St Fagans for his Granary and Provisions, and it was he builded the Church of Peterston, and he made fair stone houses for his franklens who were his Grangers and Haywards and yeomen of Guard.

11th To Sir John Fleming he gave the Castle and Mannour of St Georges with the Mannors of Gwaynvo, (fn. 22) Leckwith, and Part of Caereu for his Granary and provisions. And he built a strong Castle at Wenvoe, where he lived a half of his time. This Sir John brought men of husbandry from the Low Countries to be his Grangers and his heardsmen, of whom come the delehays and Lugs and withers and many more.

12th To Sir Oliver St John he gave the Castle and Mannour of Fonmon and the Mannors of Lancadle and Porth Ceri (fn. 23) for his Granary and provisions. And at Lancadle he had a fair Grange house, and good dwellings for his Grangers and Yeomen, whom he chose from amongst the Welsh franklens, with some flemings and Normans. He kept a Large house of Stores and provisions, which he sold twice a week to those who wanted them, and to where the English came by water from England for what they had want of, and he was very rich.

13th To Sir William Le Esterling (fn. 24) he gave the Town and Castle and Mannor of St Donats, which Castle had been builded of old and was accounted the Bravest place in the Land of Britain, for the fairness of the house and the delightsomness of the place about it, which place Sir William greatly adorned with fair parks and orchards, and groves of trees as we see them at this day. And with St Donats he had the Mannors of Colwinston and Lanmaes, both sides of Ely in St Fagans, for his Granery and provisions. Which Sir William builded fair manor houses at Lanmaes and Colwinston where he had fair Groves and Orchards and Ponds of water for fish. And this family changed their names to that of Stradling, (fn. 25) and they alone of all the rest of the Norman Lords remain still in possession of their Ancient places.

BESIDES these places which he gave his own knights and others, he bestowed the places that follow on some Welsh Lords such as these.

1st To Caradoc the Eldest Son by his 3d wife of Iestyn he gave the Lordship of Avan, that is the Lands between Neath and Avan, to hold in Right Royal, of the fœderate Power and not of the Lord Sole in Homage. This Caradoc had his Castle in [the] Town of Aberavan which he corporated a Burgher Town, as it remains to this day.

2d To Madoc the second son of Iestin by the same Wife he gave the Lordship of Rhuthyn, to hold in the same manner as his Brother Caradoc did.

3d To Rhys the third son by the same wife, he gave the Lordship of Reeding or Sofflen, (fn. 26) between Neath and Cremlyn to hold of his brother Cradoc.

4th To Einon ab Collwyn he gave the Lordship of Misgin with the Castle and Town of Lantrisant to hold of the federate Royalty, as Caradoc ab Iestin did. To Einon he also gave Nest the Daughter of Iestin to Wife, and the above Royalties for her Dowage.

5th To Cedrych ab Gwaethfoed King of Cardigan he gave the Lordship of Senghenydd. This Cedrych was a neighbour of Einon’s, and came to assist him and the Normans. He maried and Issued Cadifor ab Ced rych that married Gwenllian Daur of Einon ab Collwyn and Nest his Wife Daur to Iestin ab Gwrgan, and Issued Ifor called Ifor petit Lord of Lower Senghenydd, and his chief place was the Red Castle upon Taf above Tonn Gwenglais. (fn. 27) This Ifor Petit was a bold man of great Courage and very valorous, and in his Time some of the Norman Lords were oppressive, of whom was Robert Earl of Gloucester and his wife and Son. Those Ifor took and held prisoners, and also possessed himself of the Castles of Cardiff (fn. 28) and Cenffig and the Grangehouse of Boverton, which all he detained till the[y] gave full satisfaction and Justice to the freemen of the Country, who complained that they were debarred of their Just rights and claims. Upon being overcome in this manner the Lord Robert yielded to the Country their lawful claims, and to be ruled by their ancient Laws and customs. And the Lords were forced to return to their Just owners a great many places and to dispossess the foreigners to whom Lands had been given. And it was then settled that all Lords Barons should have seat and speech in the County Courts, and high sittings of Glamorgan, and that all holders in frankpledge should have seat and speech in their own Lordships and Mannors. So Ifor took to his own home in peace, and in his Castle of Castle Coch he kept twelve hundred Men, who he used to say were able to match the best twelve thousand in the world, for valour &; hardiness.

6th To Howel ab Iestyn he gave the Castle and Mannor of Lantrythyd, which castle was demolished by Meredydd ab Rhys ab Gruffydd ab Rhys ab Tewdwr, (fn. 29) and the place was never afterwards built Castle fashion, but in form of a Great Place (fn. 30) house as it is at this day to be seen 1591, though it be not in the owning of those descended from Howel ab Iestyn. It is a fair place and has to it a fair Domain, with Parks warrens &; Orchards and groves of goodly trees in abundance, and is seated in a goodly Country for Corn and Grazure.

7th He gave Bewper (fn. 31) to a great Welsh Lord who took part with him, whose name Is torn out in my Book of Pedigrees. And Sir Philip [Basset] (fn. 32) was descended from him by marriage. Some say his mother, and others say his grandmother was Daughter of Bewper. Be it as it may, this Sir Philip Basset was Lord of Bewper and Saint Hillary, and was Chief Judge and Chancelor to Robert Fitzroy (fn. 33) and William his Son, Lords of Glamorgan, and others. And he was for his great skill and Justice made Lord Chief Justice of England. He built the Castle of Bewper, a fair Place, which is possessed to this day by those who be descended from him. And to this family belong also the goodly Mannor house of Beiswal, hard by Bewper, and also now the fair Place of Lantrithyd and the Lands thereunto belonging. And we account the Bassetts a truely worshipful family, who keep Hospitality in all their Houses as it is meet for Gentilmen so to do.

8th Cornelly Waelod was given by Sir Robert Fitzhammon to the family of Loves, (fn. 34) the name of the first of them I cannot Learn. It is said in old Book[s] of a goodly Castle or place that they had there, but the place of it I never had to know of. This Love was one of the Gentilmen Grangers of Boverton, of whom there were twelve, whose office it was to oversee and have special Care of the Lords Cornlands so that there might be enough provided for all his occasions.

9th To Simon Bonville, his chief Steward he gave the Mannor of Bonvilston. This Simon it was that first builded it, a fair village much like a Town, and from him the Welsh called it Tresimon, and the English call it Bonvilston and for shortness Bowlson.

10th To one Deere one of his Parkers he gave Lands in Lantwit and at Deerurst [struck out] a place by Tewksbury, and from him come the Deeres.

11th To one Lales his Chief Mason he Gave Lands at Langewydd, which Lales built the Town of Laleston a goodly place, and pulled down the Church of Langewydd and moved it to his new Town of Laleston. This place after the Death of Lales went by escheat to the Chief Lord, who parcelled it to others.

12th To one of the Walters he gave Lands at Boverton for holding the office of Pomarian. He also gave him Lands at Corboil in Normandy, and of this family there be still remaining some of worshipful account.

13th To one Estecotte from whome Came the family of Estecottes, Gave he Lands for holding the calling of chief provider of wood and Coal, to all his Castles and houses. And of this family there be still some poor people.

14th To one Lugge he gave the office of Chief Messenger, with Lands to hold by that service.

15th To one Punter (fn. 35) he gave the Calling of overseer of all the Bridges in Glamorgan, with Lands to support him.

And to others as you will see in their Pedigrees he gave Lands and Estates, to hold by worshipful service. But of those here spoken of, little is known, as far as I have seen.

IT behoveth here to speak of the order of Rule and governance that Sir Robert set up and of such Laws as were settled upon, and to make all plainer here followeth the names of the Lordships of Glamorgan which were twelve, that is to say

1. Gwenllogue, (fn. 36) extended from the River Tave, to the River uske, in its length from West to East. And in the west part from the Sea to the hills of Ceven Onn, (fn. 37) and in the East from the sea along Uske River to the Avon loid, (fn. 38) that runs into usk a Mile above Carleion, and along that river up to the hills to high Went, and across from there west to the River Remney. This was the greatest of all the Lordships, and was called Cantre Breniol, (fn. 39) for that it was Guildable in the Chief Lords Courts, which were held of old in Caerleion, but after that at Cardiff and often at Kenffig Castle and at the Lords Hall at Lantwit.

2. Senghenithe Lordship was next, and in it a strong Castle where were kept the Courts of the Lordship.

3. Meiskin where was the Town and Castle of Lantrisent, where the Lord of Meiskin held his Courts.

4. Glyn rhodney lay among the hills and had Lords who kept Court on the Top of a Hill called Cefen Sulseig, as we have a late rememberd.

5. Was Talavan a small Lordship but it had a fair high Castle, and in it the Lord of Talavan held his Court.

6. was Lanblethian which had in it the Town of Cowbridge and the Castles of Lanblethian and Langwyan, where in their Turn were kept the Courts of the Lordship.

7th was Lantwit a goodly Town in times Past, (fn. 40) where was a fair Court house of the Lord of Lantwit, and another Princely Hall standing where the Chief Lord held Courts when he chanced to be for stay at his house of Boverton. And it was there of old the yearly high meetings of all the Country were held to consider of the making of new Laws, and such weighty matters which wanted the Countrys Judgment, because Lantwit was the nearest of all other Towns to the middle of the Country. (fn. 41) This Lordship reached from Lar River in the East to the River Alain in the West where it Joined with Lanbleithian Lordship.

8th was Ruthen, a small Lordship that had a Castle at Ruthen, where lived the Lord and he there held his Court. He had another Castle house at Llanilid, of which nothing now remaineth.

9th was Coity, a great Lordship for number of Men. There was in it a Castle, and the new Castle stands in the now village of Coyty, where were kept the Lords Courts. There were held in this Lordship two Courts in the month.

10th was Tiryarlh, which had of old for its Castle and Court Hall the Castle of Cenffig, and alate a Castle in Langynwyd (fn. 42) and after that Bettois (fn. 43) Court. This Lordship was second for place and Royalty, till the time of Robert Fitzhamon when it was Joined to the Royalties.

11th Was the Lordship of Avan, where was the Town Royal and Castle of Aberavon (fn. 44) where the Lord had his Court. This Lordship Lay between Avan and Nethe Rivers.

12th was the Lordship of Nethe which went from Nethe River to the River Cremlyn as some say, and so it was of late times, but of old it went over the River Tawy and had all Este Gower. But the Norman Lords were never able to win Gower to their Power, and for that reason it fell into the hands of the Princes of South Wales and so remained till it fell by conquest to [blank.]

Now of these Lords before the time of Robert fitzhamon there was one Chief Lord of Glamorgan whose were the high Royalties, and he assembled the other Lords every month to his Court, (fn. 45) where all matters of Justice were determined and finally settled. These Lords sat in Judgment on all matters of Law, with twelve Freeholders from every Lordship to give opinions after what came to their knowledge, and the Bishop of Landaff sat in the high Court as a Councellor of Conscience according to the Laws of God. This Court was formed they say by Morgan who was Prince of the Country after King Arthur, in the manner of Christ and his twelve appostles, (fn. 46) and this form of Law was kept by Sir Robert fitz Hamon according to the old usage of the Country. After the high Court was held which lasted three days, the Courts of the twelve Lordships were held in turn, and from them an appeal might be made to the high Court of the County, the Lord and his yeamen, in the same form and manner as in the high Court.

Besides the Royal Cantred as much of it as lay between Tâf and Remney, there belonged to the Royalties many fair mannors, all members of the Chief Lords Portion. The tennants and freeholders within these mannors were under the high Court with respect to matters of Law, and in each of these mannors were held once in the fortnight mostly, courts of frankpledge, where sat the Reeve of the Mannor as Judge, and with him the freeholders of the same mannor. After the winning of the Country by Sir Robert Fitzhamon, he took to him his twelve knights to supply the places in his Courts of the Lawful and right Lords of the twelve Lordships, which caused discontent insomuch that the Welsh lords took arm under Pain Turberville and Caradoc ab Iestyn and Madoc his Brother, and they came to Cardiff Castle and surrounded it insomuch that it was on the point of being taken when King Henry the first going to the top of the Raven Tower, (fn. 47) to enquire concerning the tumult which was heard, he saw the place all encompassed by fierce armed men. Whereupon he called a parley, when Pain Turberville told him the reason, saying that if rightful orders were not made, to restore the Laws of Morgan the first, that he and Robert fitz hamon should feel at the ears very soon of what stuff the Castle walls were of at the heart. On which all in the Castle councelled together, and it was seen best to Yield to the Country that request. And soon after Sir Robert sent a band of Men to bring Turbill a Prisoner to the Castle, where he was bound in chains for that he would not pay what had been charged of him in tribute, which was a noble in the year. This noble Pain had paid to Caradoc, which gave offence to Sir Robert and the other knightes. But after they had taken Pain all his men and the men of Caradoc took arms and beset the Castle of Cardiff, whereupon Sir Robert was compelled to let go Pain Turbill and to give him free of the Noble a year. Which after that nevertheless came by Joint agreement to be paid the Chief lord what time Ifor Petit rose up the Country for that the old laws were not kept to. And at this time it was again settled for the proper Courts to be held in all the Lordships, and the lords of the Courts to Join with the Chief Lord in his high Court, which Laws had been a second time broke by the Norman Lords. And in this engagement as was said before, the Welsh Lords won the right and it so remained till wales and England were united in one Realm and the Laws were altered. About the same time Came Meredith ap Gruffydd into possession and Rule in Gwenlloge, and then that Country began to be under its own Lords and Courts, and its Lords would not give attendance in the high Court of Glamorgan, but they parted it in three parts that is to say, Wenlloge, Aber Carn and Dylygion, which were under the Lords of Caerlleon who were of Right Chief Lords of Glamorgan and to whom some of the Welsh Lords besides those three of Gwentloge, paid at times a noble a year. And it came at Last that the Lords of Senghenythe and of Misgyn and of Coity, and those of Ruthyn and Avan, put themselves under the Lords of Caerleon, as it was in the time of King John, and other times. But in common all but Gwentlogue, eleven in number, held of the high Court and Chief Lord of Glamorgan. And this also did Wentloge in times after, that is from the days of Sir Richard Beauchamp to the time of King Henry the eighth, who altered the Laws and brought all wales under the same Laws as were in England alate. So good was the Rule and Government in Glamorgan thought of, that many things were taken from it to add to the Laws of England, and more specially in the time of King Elfred. Now the high Lordship of Glamorgan is formed into a County and makes one of the thirteen Counties of Wales.

The County of Glamorgan doth now reach from Remney River to the River Aman, and Gower is a part of it with special priviledge, (fn. 48) and Gwentlogue with all its Members together with the Town of Caerleon makes part of the Shire of Monmouth. And these Countries be all Good and fruitful, full of Corn and Good Grazure, with abundance of kine and sheep, and a great many fair Castles and places of worshipfulness having Parks and Warrens and Orchards, and Ponds of fish, in as good plenty as any other shire in England or Wales, excepting that we account for lean and rough in part the Lordships of Senghenydd and most of Misgin with Glynrhoddeney and some of Tiriarll and the high parts of Gwentlogue, which lye among high hills and Mountains but not without what is wanting of Corn and abundance of kine and Sheep, and numbers great of Rivers full of trouts, with large woods and plentuous vains of good Coal. These good things I say be in the worst parts, and if anything be wanting, the lower parts lye to the south hard at hand ready to afford in supply all that may be wanted, whether it be of Corn of all sorts or of dainty fruits and good fullfated flesh of Oxen or of Sheep. And running to the sea find we many fair Rivers full of Good salmons and suins (fn. 49) and trouts and many more sorts of dainty fish, and having at their fall into the sea many safe places for sheltering ships, that bring in useful and costly merchandize. All which things being put together make the land of Glamorgan in all its twelve Cantons a very plentiful and Goodly Country, insomuch that for Corn and good fruits they Call it in England the Garden of Wales, and for good Cattle of all kinds the nursery of the West, and for its good fires we have a saying by way of proverb, in calling a good fire Glamorgan Sun, (fn. 50) there being so great a fullness of Wood and Coal.

And thus endeth the story of the Coming of the Norman Lords here and of the sway they obtained. And be it at this day observed that there are but a very small number of families of them and their tenants now in being, their Lands having for the most part passed in long course of time to other families, of whom are many welsh, and some of them come of the Welsh rightful owners of the Lands from first. And this I gathered from numbers of old Books, with much Labour and Pains of Study.

Edward Mansel, 1591


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